Coronary artery disease risk factors:
Coronary artery disease affects the blood vessels (arteries) on the heart surface. These arteries bring blood to the heart (rich in oxygen and nutrients).
The heart is a powerful muscle organ and needs sufficient oxygen supply to function effectively. The oxygen-rich blood is taken to the heart by three arteries, which fall into the network of small vessels.
Some complicating factors cause these usually soft and compliant blood vessels to harden. Additionally, fat, cholesterol, and minerals from the blood are deposited on the inner surface of the coronary arteries.
When this material is built up, it forms a plaque that restricts blood flow through the coronary artery.
Such a plaque can change the surface of the artery from smooth to rigid, and these rough surfaces trigger blood clotting, which can slowly make the artery more narrow. Blood clots can also quickly and abruptly close to the artery.
Coronary arteries disease treatment:
Plaques that block the coronary arteries usually occur in the localized parts of the arteries.
The part of the artery that is beyond the compression or closure is often not blocked. When the disease is localized in one or both arteries, the blockage is short-lived.
Coronary Artery Disease complications:
Narrow coronary arteries mean the amount of blood reaching the heart muscle is reduced. Fatigue, tightness in the chest, or a typical suppression of chest pain known as angina pectoris, reduces blood flow.
Such symptoms are caused by exercise and mental stress, which causes the heart to need more blood. However, these symptoms can be managed with adequate rest.
When the coronary artery suddenly closes, blood flow to one part of the heart stops. In this case, some parts of the heart may be permanently damaged. It is often accompanied by severe chest pain that is not visible.
It is called myocardial infarction or heart attack in general. The heart can heal but the muscle is not replaced by scar tissue. If the scar is small, recovery is complete.
If the scar is large, it can permanently affect the pumping capacity of the heart. Therefore, it is important to restore blood supply to the heart before a heart attack occurs.
Coronary artery disease nursing diagnosis:
A coronary angiogram shows where the arteries are narrowed or blocked.
If you have some symptoms of coronary artery disease or disease, your doctor may recommend a stress test, exercise, or electrocardiogram (ECG).
Stress test measurements can cause a change in your heart’s electrical activity when you exercise a controlled exercise. This test will show if your heart is damaged.
If the stress test results indicate a need for further testing, your doctor may arrange for you to have a coronary angiogram, also known as cardiac catheterization.
A coronary angiogram is the most useful test for diagnosing CAD because it allows the physician to see where the coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked.
Before performing the angiogram, you will be given a local anesthetic or pain medication. The doctor then inserted the intraocular cavity through the incision in your groin or in your hand.
The doctor then inserts a long tube called a guiding catheter into the artery and blocks it. By injecting a contrast die that can be seen on the X-ray screen, the doctor can track the arteries in your heart.
The doctor may ask you to take a deep breath and hold it while performing the angiogram. Any narrowing or blockage that exists is then identified.
In some cases, the doctor immediately follows an angiogram to perform a primary angioplasty or balloon procedure to open the coronary artery to the bloodstream.