MDCAT SYLLABUS 2020:
UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES (UHS):
Medical and Dental Colleges Admission Test mdcat syllabus 2020.
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Structure of the Question Paper for Medical and Dental Colleges Admission Test mdcat syllabus2020.
S.no Subjects Questions
1- Biology: 80
2- Chemistry: 60
3- Physics: 40
4- English: 20
Total of: 200
The time duration to attempt the paper shall be 150 minutes (2hrs 30 minutes).
Each question shall carry one mark with no negative marking.
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Table of Contents:
1 The Cell
2 Biological Molecules
3 Chromosomes and DNA
4 Cell Division
5 Variety of Life
7 Gas Exchange
8 Transport in Plants
9 Transport in Human
12 Muscles and Movement
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1 The Cell:
Light and Electron Microscope (Magnification and Resolution).
Structure of Typical Animal and Plant Cell.
Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell Membrane.
Transport of Material across the Cell Membrane: Active transport, Passive transport,
Endocytosis and Exocytosis.
Eukaryotic Cell Structures: Endoplasmic reticulum (RER & SER), Ribosomes, Golgi
apparatus, Lysosomes, Vacuoles, Centrioles & Microtubules, Mitochondria, Chloroplast
and Nucleus (nuclear membrane, nucleolus, and chromosomes).
Prokaryotic Cell & Eukaryotic cell.
2 Biological Molecules.
Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides (Starch, Glycogen
Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and their functions.
Proteins: Amino Acids & Peptide bond formation, Structures of Proteins (primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures) and Globular & Fibrous Proteins
Nucleic acids: DNA, RNA, and Types of RNA.
Water: Heat of vaporization, Specific Heat Capacity and Solvent Action.
Enzyme: Definition, Characteristics of, Mechanism of Enzyme Action Enzymes (Lock &
key model and Induced fit model), Factors affecting the rate of Enzyme Action,
3 Chromosomes and DNA:
Chromosome: Nucleosome, DNA, Histone Proteins, Chromatids, Centromere and
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Gene as a Basic Unit of Genetic Information.
DNA Replication: Hypothesis of DNA Replication, Meselson & Stahl’s experiment and
4 Cell Division
Cell Cycle: Interphase (G1, S and G2 phases), Mitotic phase and Cytokinesis
Mitosis: Process of Mitosis, Significance of Mitosis
Meiosis: Process of Meiosis and Significance of Meiosis
5 Variety of Life:
Kingdoms: Protoctista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia
Viruses: Structure of Viruses
AIDS: Causative Agent, Modes of Transmission and Prevention & Control
Photosynthetic Pigments (Chlorophylls and Carotenoids)
Absorption and Action Spectra
Light-Dependent Reactions (cyclic and non-cyclic phosphorylation) and
Light-Independent Reactions (Calvin cycle).
Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, Link reaction / Pyruvic Oxidation, Kreb’s Cycle (with
reference to production of NADH, FADH and ATP) and ETC
Anaerobic Respiration and its Types (Alcoholic and Lactic Acid Fermentation).
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7 Gas Exchange
Anatomy of the Human Respiratory System.
Transport of Respiratory Gases: O2 & CO2 and Role of Haemoglobin as Respiratory
Respiratory Disorders: Tuberculosis, Emphysema, and Lung Cancer.
8 Transport in Plants
Transport of Water and Minerals: Apoplast & Symplast Pathway and Cohesion,
Transpiration Pull / Tension & Adhesion
Transpiration, Factors affecting it and opening and closing of Stomata.
Translocation according to Pressure Flow Theory
9 Transport in Human
Heart: Structure of heart, Cardiac Cycle, Control of Heart Beat, ECG and Blood Pressure
Blood Vessels: Arteries, Veins and Capillaries
Blood: Plasma and Blood Cells (RBCs, WBCs and platelets).
Immune System and its Components
Types of Immunity
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Thermoregulation in Mammals
Human Urinary System.
12 Muscles and Movement
Structure and Function of Skeletal Muscle
Mechanism of Skeletal Muscle Contraction; Sarcomere, Ultrastructure of
Myofilaments, Sliding Filament, Control of Actin-Myosin Interaction and Use of Energy
for Muscle Contraction.
Nervous Coordination in Mammals
Neurons: Sensory, Intermediate/relay, and motor neurons
Reflex arc / Reflex action
Hormones: Definition & Types of Hormones, Hormones of Islets of Langerhans (Insulin
& Glucagon) and Role of ADH in Osmoregulation.
Plants Hormones: Auxins, Gibberellins and Abscisic Acid.
Gametogenesis: Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
Hormonal control of Human Menstrual Cycle (FSH, LH, estrogen, and progesterone)
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Basics of Genetics: Gene, Locus, Allele, Gene Pool, Phenotype, Genotype, Homozygous,
Heterozygous, Dominant Allele, Recessive Allele, Complete Dominance, Codominance,
Linkage, F1 & F2 Generations, Mutation and Multiple Allele.
Gene Linkage: Crossing over and Recombination Frequency / Cross Over Value
Continuous and Discontinuous Variations
Punnet square, Test cross and Monohybrid & Dihybrid Crosses
Gene Linkage and Sex Linkage in Human (Haemophilia and Colour Blindness).
Recombinant DNA Technology / Genetic Engineering: Principles of Recombinant DNA
Technology and its Application, PCR & Gel Electrophoresis and DNA Analysis / Finger
Transgenic Organisms (Bacteria, Plants, and Animals)
Theory of natural selection
Hardy-Weinberg theorem and factors affecting gene / allele frequency.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS:
A. Physical Chemistry
1. Fundamental Concepts
2. States of Matter
3. Atomic Structure
4. Chemical Bonding
5. Chemical Energetics
7. Chemical Equilibrium
8. Reaction Kinetics
B. Inorganic Chemistry:
3. Transition Elements
4. Compounds of Nitrogen and Sulphur
C. Organic Chemistry
1. Fundamental Principles
3. Alkyl Halides (Haloalkanes)
4. Alcohols and Phenols
5. Aldehydes and Ketones
6. Carboxylic Acids
7. Amino Acids
9. Environmental Chemistry
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1. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
Empirical and Molecular formulae
Concentration units of solutions
i. Percentage composition
iii. Mole fraction
2. STATES OF MATTER
General Gas Equation (PV=n RT).
ii. Vapor pressure
iv. Structure of ice
The lattice structure of a crystalline solid
3. ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Proton, Neutron and Electron
Distribution of Mass and charges
Deduce the number of protons, neutrons and electrons from given proton number
and nucleon number .
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Shape of s, p and d- Orbitals
4. CHEMICAL BONDING
Ionic (Electrovalent) bond
Use the “dot and cross” model for:
i. Covalent bonding
ii. Co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding
Shapes and Bond Angles of molecules
Bond Energy, Bond length and bond Polarity (Electronegativity difference)
Intermolecular Forces (especially Hydrogen Bonding)
Interpret and Predict the effect of different types of bonding on physical properties
5. CHEMICAL ENERGETICS
Concept of Energy changes during Chemical reactions
Use the terms:
i. Enthalpy change of reaction
ii. Bond energy
Numerical Magnitude of Lattice Energy
Hess’s law to construct simple energy cycles.
Oxidation numbers of Elements.
Balancing chemical equations by redox method.
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Standard electrode (redox) Potential
Standard Hydrogen Electrode
Methods used to measure the standard Electrode potentials of metals
Standard Cell Potential
Construct Redox equations
Advantages of Developing the H2/O2 fuel cell.
7. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
Rates of forward and reverse Reactions and Dynamic Equilibrium
Le- Chatelier’s Principle.
Deduce expression for Equilibrium constant
Calculate the values of Equilibrium constants
Calculate the equilibrium quantities
Conditions used in Haber process.
Qualitatively the differences in behavior of strong/weak acids and bases
Terms: pH, Ka, pKa, Kb, pKb, Kw and Ksp.
(aq)], pH and pOH values for strong and weak acids and bases.
8. REACTION KINETICS/ CHEMICAL KINETICS
Rate of Reaction, Activation Energy, Catalysis, Rate Equation, Order of Reaction, Rate
Enzymes as Biological Catalysts
Construct and use rate equations with special emphasis on
i. Zero order reaction
ii. 1st order reaction
iii. 2nd order reaction
Half-life of a first order Reaction .
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Calculate the order of reaction
Calculate the rate constant
Name a Suitable method for studying the rate of a Reaction
Variation in the Physical properties of Elements Belonging to period 2 and period 3:
a. Atomic Radius
b. Ionic Radius
c. Melting Point
d. Boiling Point
e. Ionization Energy
g. Electron Affinity
h. Electrical Conductivity
i. Oxidation States
j. Hydration Energy
Periodic Relationship in Binary compounds:
a. Halides (especially chlorides)
The variation in the properties of group II and VII Elements:
a. Reactions of group II elements.
b. Thermal decomposition and solubility of compounds of group II elements
c. Properties of Halogens and their compounds
d. Reaction of Chlorine
e. Comparison of Oxidizing power of halogens.
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Uses of Halogens and compounds of Halogens
3. TRANSITION ELEMENTS:
Chemistry of Transition Elements of 3d series:
a. Electronic Configuration
b. Variable Oxidation states
c. Uses as a Catalyst
d. Formation of Complexes
e. Colour of Transition Metal Complexes
f. Geometry and isomerism of complex ions with coordination number 4 and 6.
4. COMPOUNDS OF NITROGEN AND SULPHUR
Presence of Sulphur Dioxide in atmosphere
Manufacturing of Sulphuric Acid.
Sulphuric acid as Dehydrating agent and Oxidizing agent.
1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES:
The Organic compounds.
Alkanes and Alkenes of lower masses.
Nucleophiles, electrophiles and free radicals
Functional group and Nomenclature of organic compounds.
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Chemistry of Alkanes with emphasis on:
The Mechanism of free radical Substitution reaction.
Chemistry of Alkenes with emphasis on:
Preparation of Alkenes:
Reaction of Alkenes:
Chemistry of Benzene
Electrophilic substitution reactions and the mechanism
Hydrogenation of Benzene ring.
Side chain Oxidation of Methyl Benzene (Toluene) and Ethyl Benzene.
Benzene ring by 2,4 Directing and 3,5 directing groups
3. ALKYL HALIDES (HALOGENOALKANES)
Importance of Halogenoalkanes.
Reaction of Alkyl Halides:
Nucleophilic substitution reactions and mechanisms
4. ALCOHOLS AND PHENOLS:
Alcohols with reference to:
Alcohols: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary.
Preparation of Ethanol
Reactions of Alcohols
Reactions of Phenol
Acidity of Water, ethanol and phenol
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5. ALDEHYDES AND KETONES:
Structure of Aldehydes and Ketones.
Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones.
Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones:
Nucleophilic addition reaction mechanism.
6. CARBOXYLIC ACID:
Physical properties of carboxylic acids.
Reactions of carboxylic acids
Relative Acidic strength.
7. AMINO ACIDS:
General Structure of -Amino Acids found in Proteins.
Amino Acids on the basis of Nature of R-group.
Acid base properties of Amino Acids.
Peptide bond formation.
Structure of Proteins.
Structure and function of Nucleic acid (DNA).
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9. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY:
Chemistry and causes of Acid Rain.
Ozone and Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
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Table of Contents
2. Motion and Force
3. Work, Energy and Power
4. Circular Motion
8. Heat & Thermodynamics
10. Current Electricity
12. Electromagnetic Induction
13. Deformation of Solids
15. Modern Physics
16. Nuclear Physics
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Physical quantities, numerical magnitude and a proper unit.
International System of Units, SI base units of physical quantities, and their derived
Prefixes and symbols to indicate decimal, submultiples or multiples of both base and
Errors and uncertainties
Systematic error and random error.
Fractional uncertainty and percentage uncertainty.
Assessment of total uncertainty in the final results (Understanding of total assessment
about addition and subtraction, multiplication and division & power factor).
2. MOTION AND FORCE
Displacement, Distance, Speed, Velocity and Acceleration.
Equations of motion.
Newton’s Laws of Motion.
Momentum and law of conservation of momentum.
Force and rate of change of momentum.
Impulse and I = F t = mvf mvi
Elastic and in-elastic collisions
Projectile Motion and its applications.
Moment of force or torque and use of torque
3. WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
Work in terms of the product of a force and displacement in the direction of the force.
Kinetic energy K.E =
Potential energy P.E = mgh
Inter-conversion of kinetic energy and potential energy in gravitational field.
Power in terms of work done per unit time and use power as product of force and
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The Pattern of Question Paper is generally to be in conformance but, not limited to the
The above guidelines are meant for general facilitation of students. Final paper setting is
the sole prerogative of UHS Lahore, however.
velocity P =
and P = Fv
4. CIRCULAR MOTION
Angular motion, angular displacement & angular velocity
Centripetal Force and centripetal acceleration
o F = mr2, F =
Simple harmonic motion
Amplitude, Frequency, Angular Frequency, Phase Difference. Express the time period in
terms of both frequency and angular frequency.
Equations x=xo sinωt, v = v0cosωt,
Motion of simple pendulum and relation.
Kinetic energy and potential energy during Simple harmonic motion.
Free, Forced and Damped Oscillations
Transverse and longitudinal waves.
Principle of superposition.
Stationary waves and wavelength of sound waves in air columns and stretched strings
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Interference of light waves, constructive and destructive interference.
Young’s Double Slit experiment, fringe spacing, dark and bright fringes.
Diffraction (basic principle)
8. HEAT & THERMODYNAMICS
Basic postulates of kinetic theory of gases
Pressure exerted by a gas and derive the relation
Equation of state for an ideal gas as PV = nRT
and PV = NkT and prove that K.E T for a single molecule.
Specific Heat capacity.
Electric field strength.
to calculate the field strength.
Electric field lines.
for the field strength
Gravitational force and electric force.
Capacitance of a capacitor
Energy stored in capacitor
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10. CURRENT ELECTRICITY
Series and parallel Combination of resistors
Resistance and resistivity
Potential difference and e.m.f
Power dissipation in resistors.
Kirchhoff’s First Law as conservation of charge.
Kirchhoff’s Second Law as conservation of energy.
Force on current carrying conductor in uniform magnetic field
Force on a moving charge in magnetic field
Motion of charge particle in uniform electric and magnetic field.
e/m for an electron.
12. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law.
Induced e.m.f and factors
Alternating current and use V = Vo sint.
Transformer and uses of
and practical transformer.
Period, frequency, peak value and root mean square value of an alternating current or voltage.
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13. DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS
Stress, strain and Young’s Modulus.
Tensile stress and strain.
Elastic and plastic deformation of a material.
Band Theory, valence band, conduction band and forbidden band.
Half and Full wave rectification
Single diode for half wave rectification of an alternating current
Four diodes for full wave rectification of an alternating current
Operational amplifier and its characteristics
15. MODERN PHYSICS
Energy of photon E = hf
Photoelectric Effect, Threshold Frequency and Work Function Energy.
Maximum photoelectric energy is independent of intensity whereas photoelectric
current is proportional to intensity
Einstein’s Photoelectric equation
Discrete energy levels of hydrogen atom and spectral lines.
Relation hf = (E2E1)
Production of X-rays and features of X-rays tube.
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16. NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Nucleus, nucleon number and charge number.
Radioactivity and emission of radiation.
Activity, Decay constant and relation Activity = N.
Half-life of radioactive substance and relation
Nuclear transmutation and conservation of mass, energy, momentum and charge
during nuclear changes.
Mass-defect, binding energy and relation E = mc2
Nuclear fission and fusion.
Hadrons, Leptons and Quarks.
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The aim of the English section of MDCAT is to measure the applicants’ skills in English language
and to evaluate how prepared they are for undertaking graduate studies in medicine in
English. The test applies a common standard to everyone to be able to evaluate the
preparation of the applicants from different sectors, regions and socio-economic backgrounds.
The benchmarks for the test have been developed in the light of the curriculum used in HSSC
and CIE. Since the students who take the MDCAT come from a wide range of educational
contexts, the test comprises items that may be applied to a broadband of language
competencies that are not exclusive to one particular type of curriculum.
i. To ensure complete alignment between the English curriculum used in various
sectors at the HSSC and CIE level and the test items
ii. To create a balance of items from different benchmarks of the English curriculum
outlined for MDCAT
iii. To make sure that difficult and ambiguous items beyond the scope of high school
education are not included
iv. To design the test specifications
v. To design, select, and arrange test task items.
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Objective Benchmark Contents
1. Comprehend key
Use one or more of the following
strategies to determine the meaning of
1.1 contextual clues and
1.2 background or prior
1.3 morphology, syntax, phonics,
knowledge of word
1.4 knowledge of synonyms,
High and low frequency
words from the course
book or to be selected from
similar contexts or the
contexts the HSSC and CIE
students may be familiar
2. Demonstrate control of tenses and sentence structure:
2.1 Use correct tenses and
sentence structure in writing
2.2 Identify mistakes in the use of
tenses and sentence structure
in written texts
All the present tenses
All the past tenses
Four types of
Types of clauses
3. Demonstrate correct use of subject-verb agreement:
3.1 use correct subject-verb
agreement in written texts
3.2 Identify mistakes in the use of
subject verb-agreement in
Use the texts
prescribed/used in HSSC or
CIE for selecting test items
as well as determining the
degree of their complexity
4. Demonstrate the correct use of articles and prepositions:
4.1 Use appropriate articles and
prepositions in different
4.2 Identify mistakes in the use of
articles and prepositions in
sentences or short texts
4.3 Select the appropriate article
or preposition for a particular
The test items to be
selected from the
contexts common to the
texts at HSSC and CIE
5. Demonstrate correct use of writing conventions of spelling, capitalization, and punctuation to clarify meaning:
5.1 Use capitalization and
punctuation such as semi
colons, commas in a series,
apostrophes in possessives,
proper nouns, and
5.2 Avoid and identify the
The test items to be
selected from the type
of texts written by
HSSC and CIE students
and from the contexts
common to both the
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mistakes in sentences or short
5.2.1. Run-on sentences
5.2.2. Comma splices
5.2.4 Faulty coordination
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on the wrong foot
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